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Blog criado por Bruno Coriolano de Almeida Costa, professor de Língua Inglesa desde 2002. Esse espaço surgiu em 2007 com o objetivo de unir alguns estudiosos e professores desse idioma. Abordamos, de forma rápida e simples, vários aspectos da Língua Inglesa e suas culturas. Agradeço a sua visita.

"Se tivesse perguntado ao cliente o que ele queria, ele teria dito: 'Um cavalo mais rápido!"

terça-feira, 16 de setembro de 2014

17 Things Emotionally Strong People Don’t Do.

Once you believe you are strong emotionally, you will unconsciously act stronger than before and begin to take control over your emotional whims.

– Senora Roy

Life is a series of stories, and each one of us has a unique story to tell. Billions upon billions of stories and no two are exactly the same. If the story of your life has been filled with more sad moments than happy ones, it’s time to change that. And the best place to start is within your head.

You have the power to create the life you want. One crucial skill that will help you get there is learning how to become emotionally strong. The good news is emotional strength is like a muscle: the more you use it, the stronger it becomes.

In this article, you’ll learn 17 things emotionally strong people don’t do … so you can start creating the existence you’ve always imagined for yourself.

They don’t beg for attention.

Emotional strength means confidence, and confident people don’t need to constantly be the center of attention. They’re comfortable in their own skin.

They don’t allow others to bring them down.

Emotionally strong people ignore the haters and the naysayers. They weed these people out and surround themselves with positive people instead.

They don’t stop believing in themselves.

Somehow I can’t believe that there are any heights that can’t be scaled by a man who knows the secrets of making dreams come true. This special secret, it seems to me, can be summarized in four C’s. They are curiosity, confidence, courage, and constancy, and the greatest of all is confidence. When you believe in a thing, believe in it all the way, implicitly and unquestionable.

– Walt Disney

Soak up these amazing words from Walt Disney. Because belief is the most essential quality of emotional strength.

They’re not afraid to love.

Love is the force that transforms and improves the Soul of the World.

– Paulo Coelho

People who possess emotional strength have experienced heartbreak. But it doesn’t hold them back … it makes them stronger. Just because you’ve been hurt doesn’t mean you should shut love out of your life. Open up your heart and embrace vulnerability. The love you find will be worth everything you go through to get it.

They’re not afraid of slowing down.

Sometimes you need to take a step back and slow it down when you’ve been pushing yourself too hard. Having drive is great but not at the expense of your health and well-being. Allow yourself time for reflection and relaxation.

They refuse to be a victim of circumstance.

Being emotionally strong means refusing to make excuses. Leave the past behind you and focus on getting a little better every day.

They don’t have a problem saying no.

Saying no is one of the most important things you’ll ever learn how to do. Focus on your top priorities and say no to all the stuff that’s wasting your time.

They don’t back down from challenges.

Emotionally strong people see challenges as opportunities to grow and improve their life. Challenges happen for a reason. Only when we have overcome them will we understand why they were there.

They don’t do things they don’t want to do.

If you want to keep your emotional balance and sanity intact, do what you love. Get rid of baggage and commitments that are making you miserable.

They don’t forget that happiness is a decision.

Emotionally strong people know that happiness is a choice. They understand the things they need to really be happy. They choose a life of simplicity, productivity, and passion.

They don’t waste time.

Abraham Lincoln said, “It’s not the years in your life that count. It’s the life in your years.” Emotionally strong folks don’t waste time doing mindless crap. They live mindfully in the present, enjoying every day as if it’s their last.

They aren’t afraid to ask for help.

Every single one of the great minds in history, from Einstein to Edison, had help along the way. You can’t do it all alone, and it takes an emotionally strong person to swallow their pride and ask for help.

They don’t hold themselves back.

Self-handicapping is a common trait among emotionally weak people. What this means is you make excuses and find ways to justify your inadequacies instead of finding ways to improve on them. If you want to change something, stop holding yourself back. Just start. Small victories lead to major changes.

They don’t mind working a little harder than everyone else.
The heights by great men reached and kept were not attained by sudden flight, but they, while their companions slept, were toiling upward in the night.

– Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Soak in these poetic words from Longfellow. Put in the work, and you’ll get the results you’re looking for.

They don’t overreact to things beyond their control.

Charles Swindoll said, “Life is 10% what happens to me and 90% how I react to it.” Think about how many times a day you overreact to things that really don’t matter. When you start to feel your blood boil, take a deep breath and ask yourself, “Is this really worth getting stressed out over?” Ninety-nine percent of the time, you’ll realize the answer is no.

They aren’t content with a mediocre life.

Emotionally strong people don’t settle for mediocrity. They strive to achieve greatness.

They never, ever give up.

Being emotionally strong means staring adversity in the face, learning from your mistakes, and living to fight another day. I’ll leave you with this inspiring quote from Harriet Beecher Stowe:

When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you, till it seems as though you could not hang on a minute longer, never give up then, for that is just the place and time that the tide will turn.

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Breaking the ice.

Submitted by Rachael Roberts on 15 September, 2014 - 09:47

When I first learnt French at school, aged about 9 or 10, the teacher insisted on giving us all French names. I was annoyed because mine was Renee (not Rachel). Who was this Renee, and what did she have to do with me? I think the idea came from the method of Suggestopaedia, and was intended to give us new French identities in which we would not feel awkward about speaking French. Can’t say it worked!

However, there is some truth in the idea that many students find it difficult to take the risk of expressing themselves in a foreign language. They can feel shy, or embarrassed. For this reason, activities at the start of a new course, often called ice breakers, are much more than just a way to have some fun and create a nice atmosphere. They can really help you to promote a level of trust and openness in the class which will encourage students to take more risks with language and with what they are willing to contribute.


Showing a willingness to reveal something of yourself will often encourage students to feel more at ease with you, and to be more open themselves.

A simple activity is to tell the students you are going to tell them some facts about yourself..but one of the facts will be false. They then have to discuss together which fact is false, and say why. After you have heard their guesses, you can tell them the truth. They can then repeat the activity in pairs or small groups.

Alternatively you could show students three personal items you carry about with you, and ask them to make guesses about you, based on these items. Again, the activity can then be repeated by the students. Another version is to ask the students to guess what items you carry in your bag (probably works better for handbags). This will encourage them to speculate on what kind of person you are, if you have a family and so on. Then you show them the contents of your handbag and explain why you are carrying these old tickets, or where you first bought this perfume etc. I love this version, because handbags are so personal that students are quite excited at the thought of getting to see what’s in there (though I have to say I do look first to make sure there’s nothing embarrassing!).


For this kind of ice breaker, you can have activities where students mingle and walk about, which can be great for getting up energy and breaking the awkward silence at the beginning, or, if your students are in fixed seats, there are plenty of activities for pairs and small groups.

Probably the most famous mingle activity is Find someone who’, which dates back to at least 1983 (Frederike Klippel, Keep Talking). Students have a list of sentences such as ‘Find someone who has six cats’ and they have to mingle around asking questions until they find the right person for each statement. These can be pre-prepared by the teacher if s/he knows enough about the students, or the questions can be more random. Another way of doing this is to get the students to write the sentences, using ‘I’d like to find someone who…’. In this way they can search for people with common interests. When the activity is finished, students can feed back to the whole class, saying who they met and what they learnt about them.

Another classic activity, which I think originates from Gertrude Moskowitch’s Caring and Sharing in the Language Classroom, is Identity Cards. Students write on a large sticker their basic information (such as their name) and also some other information about themselves, for example, three words to describe themselves, or something they do well. They then mingle and read and discuss each other’s identity cards.

Or you could try activities where students go to different corners of the room, depending on their answers to a question. For example, ‘Are you a morning person or an evening person?’ The students go right or left and then briefly discuss with the people next to them the reasons for their choice. Another version gets students to stand on a cline. This can work well with adjectives- e.g. how confident are you? (far left very confident, and far right very unconfident). You could then get them to do it again and stand where they would like to be.

If you want or need students to remain seated, a very simple activity is to ask them to find three things they have in common with their neighbour that they can’t tell just by looking (and/or three things which are different).

Or, if you have more time, or want to go into more depth, you could ask students to write down a number of questions that they would like to be asked about their life and interests. They then swap the questions with a neighbour and carry out an interview with each other. This has the great advantage that students can avoid touchy subjects and that they will probably talk at some length about what they do want to talk about.

Giving students some time to prepare before discussion usually pays off. A useful technique is to get them to draw a PIE CHART about themselves. This could represent how much of their day they spend on different activities, or what things they are interested in, with bigger slices of pie for those that interest them the most. They then show each other the charts and explain and answer questions.

Or you could ask students to draw a simple map of their life, with symbols along the way to represent milestones. This will work better if you do it yourself first, and, of course, has the advantage of introducing you to them as well.

The possibilities are endless, and, of course, you don’t have to do these activities at the beginning of a new year. They can work any time as a way of deepening the interaction between you and the students and between the students themselves.

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segunda-feira, 15 de setembro de 2014

Panorama da Literatura dos EUA

Começa agora uma série de postagens, retiradas na integra, de outros sites para meus alunos de Literatura Norte-Americana I. todo o material será disponibilizado apenas para orientar ou fazer com que os alunos tenham informações extras com o objetivo único de auxiliar nos estudos de tal disciplina. Embora estas postagens sejam escritas em português, as aulas serão ministradas em língua inglesa.

A disponibilização dos sites se origem estará disponível apenas na última postagem, portando não estranhem o fato de não encontrar referências aqui, no momento!

Primórdios e Período Colonial

A base da literatura americana tem início com a transmissão oral de mitos, lendas, contos e letras (sempre de canções) das culturas indígenas. A tradição oral do indígena americano é bastante diversificada. As histórias indígenas fazem uma brilhante reverência à natureza como mãe espiritual e também física. A natureza é viva e dotada de forças espirituais; os principais personagens podem ser animais ou plantas, geralmente totens associados a uma tribo, um grupo ou indivíduo.

A contribuição do índio americano para os Estados Unidos é maior do que se pensa. Centenas de palavras indígenas são usadas no inglês americano do dia-a-dia, entre elas “canoe” (canoa), “tobacco” (tabaco), “potato” (batata), “moccasin” (mocassim), “moose” (alce), “persimmon” (caqui), “raccoon” (guaximim), “tomahawk” (machadinha indígena) e “totem” (totem). A produção literária ameríndia contemporânea, da qual trata o capítulo 7, também contém obras de grande beleza.

O primeiro registro europeu sobre a exploração da América é em um idioma escandinavo. A Velha Saga Norueguesa de Vinland conta como o aventureiro Leif Eriksson e um bando de noruegueses errantes se instalaram por um breve período na costa nordeste da América — provavelmente na Nova Escócia, no Canadá — na primeira década do século 11.

O primeiro contato conhecido e comprovado entre os americanos e o resto do mundo, contudo, começou com a famosa viagem de um explorador italiano, Cristóvão Colombo, financiada por Izabel, rainha da Espanha. O diário de Colombo em sua “Epístola”, impresso em 1493, conta o drama da viagem.

As primeiras tentativas de colonização pelos ingleses foram desastrosas. A primeira colônia foi fundada em 1585 em Roanoke, na costa da Carolina do Norte; todos os seus colonizadores desapareceram. A segunda colônia foi mais duradoura: Jamestown, fundada em 1607. Ela resistiu à fome, à brutalidade e ao desgoverno. No entanto, a literatura desse período pinta a América com cores brilhantes como uma terra de fartura e oportunidades. Relatos sobre as colonizações tornaram-se famosos no mundo todo.

No século 17, piratas, aventureiros e exploradores abriram caminho para uma segunda onda de colonizadores permanentes, que levou esposas, filhos, implementos agrícolas e ferramentas artesanais. As primeiras produções literárias da época da exploração consistiam de diários, cartas, diários de viagem, registros de bordo e relatórios dirigidos aos financiadores dos exploradores. Como a Inglaterra acabou tomando posse das colônias da América do Norte, a literatura colonial mais conhecida e antologizada era inglesa.

Na história do mundo, provavelmente, não houve outros colonizadores tão intelectualizados quanto os puritanos, a maioria dos quais de origem inglesa ou holandesa. Entre 1630 e 1690, havia tantos bacharéis na região nordeste dos Estados Unidos, conhecida como Nova Inglaterra, quanto na Inglaterra. Os puritanos, que sempre venceram pelo próprio esforço e foram geralmente autodidatas, queriam educação para entender e realizar a vontade divina ao fundarem suas colônias por toda a Nova Inglaterra.

O estilo puritano apresentava grande variedade — da complexa poesia metafísica aos diários domésticos, passando pela história religiosa com fortes toques de pedantismo. Seja qual for o estilo ou o gênero, certos temas eram constantes. A vida vista como um teste; o fracasso que leva à maldição eterna e ao fogo do inferno; e o sucesso que leva à felicidade eterna. Esse mundo era uma arena de embates constantes entre as forças de Deus e as forças do Diabo, um inimigo terrível com muitos disfarces.

Há muito tempo os acadêmicos enfatizam essa ligação entre o puritanismo e o capitalismo: ambos têm como base a ambição, o trabalho árduo e a luta intensa pelo sucesso. Embora individualmente os puritanos não pudessem saber, em termos estritamente teológicos, se estavam “salvos” e entre os eleitos que iriam para o céu, eles viam em geral o sucesso terreno como um sinal de terem sido os escolhidos. Buscavam riqueza e status não só para eles próprios, mas como uma sempre bem-vinda garantia de saúde espiritual e promessas de vida eterna.

Além disso, o conceito de administração estimulava o sucesso. Os puritanos achavam que ao aumentar seu próprio lucro e o bem-estar da comunidade, estavam também promovendo os planos de Deus. O grande modelo de literatura, crença e conduta era a Bíblia, em uma tradução inglesa autorizada. A grande antiguidade da Bíblia assegurava autoridade aos olhos dos puritanos.

Com o fim do século 17 e início do século 18, o dogmatismo religioso diminuiu gradualmente, apesar dos grandes esforços esporádicos dos puritanos para impedir a onda de tolerância. O espírito de tolerância e liberdade religiosa que cresceu aos poucos nas colônias americanas foi plantado inicialmente em Rhode Island e na Pensilvânia, terra dos quakers. Os humanos e tolerantes quakers, ou “Amigos”, como eram conhecidos, acreditavam no caráter sagrado da consciência individual como origem da ordem social e da moralidade. A crença fundamental dos quakers no amor universal e na fraternidade os tornou profundamente democráticos e contrários à autoridade religiosa dogmática. Expulsos do rígido estado de Massachusetts, que temia sua influência, estabeleceram uma colônia muito bem-sucedida, a Pensilvânia, sob o comando de William Penn, em 1681.

“O Primeiro Dia de Ação de Graças, 1621”, de J.L.G. Ferris, mostra os primeiros colonizadores da América e os indígenas americanos celebrando uma colheita abundante (Cortesia: Biblioteca do Congresso)

Cartoons about the Scottish referendum.

I love reading this blog because I always get to learn a thing or two from it. In this very specific topic, you will read and learn some things about the Scottish independence referendum, 2014. (((Read more here)))

In Two Minds Over Scottish Independence.

Scotland goes to the polls on September 18 and voters will be asked to answer the question: "Should Scotland be an independent country?" The latest opinion polls suggest that the result is too close to call. 


The cartoon by 
Heath from the Mail on Sunday shows a party where people are discussing Scottish independence. Those in favour have the Scottish flag painted on their faces, and those against the Union Jack. However, one man has both flags painted on his face, and tells his interlocutor, "To tell you the truth, I'm in two minds."


If you are in two minds about something, you are uncertain or to have difficulty in making a decision.

• I'm in two minds about accepting the job. The joke is that the man has two flags painted on his face to show that he is undecided.

Cameron Woos Scots.

British PM 
David Cameron dropped everything last Wednesday to head to Scotland to stem the momentum of the "Yes" campaign for secession. For Alex Salmond, the Scot leading the charge for independence, the move means the Brits are panicked. "If I thought they were coming by bus, I'd send the bus fare," he told Reuters. Cameron's visit came a day after his impassioned Daily Mail piece, in which he promised Scots that a "no" vote wouldn't keep the status quo, but usher in more power over taxes, spending, and welfare.Read more >>

The cartoon by 
Paul Thomas from the Daily Express shows David Cameron and his wife Samantha in their kitchen. Cameron is reading a newspaper whose front page headline reads, "Cameron Woos Scots." Samantha, who is wearing a tartan skirt, sash, and tam o' shanter (hat), tells her husband, "I thought you'd take more notice of me dressed like this ..."

Tartan is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours traditionally associated with Scotland. By wearing tartan, Samantha hopes David will pay more attention to her, as he has suddenly become very keen on Scotland and things Scottish.

To woo is to try to persuade people to support you or to buy something from you, especially by saying and doing nice things.

• Supermarkets are trying to woo customers by cutting prices.

• The party is clearly trying to woo women voters.

Scotland's Voice


Scottish referendum takes place next week and will determine if Scotland is to remain part of the United Kingdom.

The cartoon by 
Chappatte from The International New York Times shows a (stereo)typical English gentleman (note the bowler hat and umbrella) drinking a glass of Bow No More whisky, which has just been served to him by his manservant. The manservant is showing him the bottle, which features a picture of an angry Scotsman on the label. The Englishman comments, "Strong character!"

The cartoonist plays on the double meaning of 'strong character', which could refer to the taste of the whisky or to the Scotsman on the label. The cartoon can be seen as a metaphor for the surprised reaction of the English to the strength of the Scottish 'Yes' campaign. The name of the whisky is also a play on words and a nod to 
Bowmore, a well known Islay single malt. If you bow (down to) to someone, you show respect to someone who is more powerful than you (just like the manservant, in fact).

The Tortoise and the Hare.


Supporters of Scottish independence from Britain have taken their first opinion poll lead since the referendum campaign began, indicating a real possibility that they might win, according to a YouGov survey for the Sunday Times newspaper. With less than two weeks to go before the Sept. 18 vote, the poll put the "Yes" to independence campaign on 51 percent against "no" camp on 49 percent, overturning a 22-point lead for the unionist campaign in just a month, the Sunday Times said. YouGov said that the results excluded those who would not vote and those who did not plan to vote or did not know how they would vote. With those groups included, secessionists would be on 47 percent and those championing the United Kingdom would be on 45 percent, it added. Read more >>

The cartoon by Brian Adcock from The Independent uses 
Aesop's fable of the Tortoise and the Hare as a metaphor for the Scottish Independence race.The story concerns a Hare who ridicules a slow-moving Tortoise and is challenged by the tortoise to a race. The hare soon leaves the tortoise behind and, confident of winning, takes a nap midway through the course. When the Hare awakes however, he finds that his competitor, crawling slowly but steadily, has arrived before him. In Brian Adcock's version, the tortoise is Scottish National Party leader Alex Salmond, and the hare is Alistair Darling, former Labour chancellor and leader of the Better Together campaign, which wants to keep Scotland in the UK.

1. Tortoise is pronounced 'tortus'.

2. Adams had a 
similar cartoon in The Telegraph back in April.

PORTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-partly internet websites referred to in this post, and does not guarantee that any context on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Is something important missing? Report an error or suggest an improvement.

In some instances, I have been unable to trace the owners of the pictures used here; therefore, I would appreciate any information that would enable me to do so. Thank you very much.

From the English Blog - http://zip.net/bdpyXZ